Online and academic resources

Appropriate referencing may be a cornerstone of academic writing, but we feel that the traditional, hardcopy pages that usually adorn the final flurry of any course notes still hinders access to original work. With this in mind, we are trialling something new: all references will now be in an online format, appearing here, with associated hyperlinks. All course delegates will be directed to the exact sources which support the topic of discussion for that day, but it also hoped that past attenders can use this resource as a way to remain connected to the evidence base. We very much welcome feedback on this approach, so please, get in touch to tell us what you think,either via our facebook page or via email on

Acupuncture Safety

Clarkson, C.E., O’Mahony, D., Jones, D.E. (2015) “Adverse event reporting in studies of penetrating acupuncture during pregnancy: a systematic review’ Acta Obstetica Gynecoligica Scandinavia 94 (5)

Carr, D (2015) “The safety of Obstetric Acupuncture: forbidden points revisited” Acupuncture in medicine

White, A. (2006) ‘The Safety of Acupuncture – evidence from the UK’ Acupuncture in Medicine

Witt, C.M., Pach, D., Brinkhaus, B., Wruck, K., Tag, B., Man, S., Willich, S.N. (2009) ‘Safety of Acupuncture: Results of a Prospective Observational Study with 229,230 Patients and Introduction of a Medical Information and Consent Form’ Forsch Komplementmed

General Pain Physiology

Anon (accessed 2017) ‘Ascending Sensory Pathways’ Chapter 10. Blackwell Publishing

Harris et al (2009)’Elevated Insular Glutamate in Fibromyalgia Is Associated With Experimental Pain’ ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM

Labuz, D., Celik, M.O., Zimmer, A., and Machelska (2016) ‘Distinct roles of exogenous opioid agonists and endogenous opioid peptides in the peripheral control of neuropathy-triggered heat pain’ Scientific Reports

Schaible, H.G. (2006) ‘Peripheral and Central Mechanisms of Pain Generation’ HEP 177. p.3-28

Sapolsky, R.(2017) ‘The biology of our best and worst selves’ TED talks

Sapolsky, R. (2011) ‘Introduction to Human Behavioural Biology’

Sapolsky. R. (2011) ‘Limbic System’

Acupuncture effectiveness upon chronic pain
MacPherson, H., Vertosick, S.E., Forster, N.E., Lewith, G., Linde, K., Sherman, K.J., Witt, C.M., Vickers, A.J., ‘The persistence of the effects of acupuncture after a course of treatment: a meta-analysis of patients with chronic pain’ Pain

MacPherson, H., Vickers, A.J., Bland, M., Torgerson, D., Corbett, M., Spackman, E., Saramago P, Woods B, Weatherly H, Sculpher M, Manca A, Richmond S, Hopton A, Eldred J, Watt I. (2017) ‘Acupuncture for chronic pain and depression in primary care: a programme of research.’ NIHR Journals Library

Vickers, A.J., Alexandra C. Maschino, BS; George Lewith, MD; Hugh MacPherson, PhD; Nadine E. Foster, DPhil; Karen J. Sherman, PhD; Claudia M. Witt, MD; Klaus Linde, MD; (2012) ‘Acupuncture for Chronic Pain: Individual Patient data Meta-analysis’ JAMA Internal Medicine

Acupuncture explanatory

Dhond, R.P., Yeh, C., Park, K., Kettner, N., Napadow, V. (2008) ‘Acupuncture modulates resting state connectivity in default and sensorimotor brain networks’ Pain doi:10.1016/j.pain.2008.01.011

Huang et al. (2012) ‘Characterizing Acupuncture stimuli using Brain imaging with fMRI – A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature’ PLoS One

Hui, K.K., Napadow, V., Liu, J., Li, M., Marina, O., Nixon, E.E., Claunch, J.D., LaCount, L., Sporko, T., Kwong, K.K. (2011) ‘Monitoring acupuncture effects on human brain by FMRI’, Journal of Visualized Experiments, 38.

Napadow, V. (various) – a treasure trove of explanatory work focussing upon fMRI studies in acupuncture

Nierhaus et al. (2015)’Differential cerebral response to somatosensory stimulation of an acupuncture point vs. two non-acupuncture points measured with EEG and fMRI’Frontiers in Human Neuroscience


Bishop, Zaman and Lewith (2011)’Manual and electrical stimulation in acupuncture research: Pitfalls and Challenges of Heterogeneity’ Journal of complementary and alternative medicine

Stener-Victorin et al. (2009) ‘Low-frequency electroacupuncture and physical exercise decrease high muscle sympathetic nerve activity in polycystic ovary syndrome’

Meridians and acupoints

Ahn, A.C. et al. (2010) ‘Electrical Impedance of Acupuncture Meridians: The Relevance of Subcutaneous Collagenous Bands’, Plos One, 5 (7)

Langevin, H., Yandow, J.A. (2002) ‘Relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes’ The Anatomical Record

MacPherson, H. et al. (2016) ‘Unanticipated Insights into Biomedicine from the Study of Acupuncture’ Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Autonomic Nervous System

Bantel, C. and Trapp, S. (2011) ‘The role of the autonomic nervous system in acute surgical pain processing – what do we know?’Anaesthesia

Van Middendorp, H. et al. (2013) ‘The Impact of Emotion-Related Autonomic Nervous System Responsiveness onPain Sensitivity in Female Patients With Fibromyalgia’ Psychosomatic Medicine


Deadman et al (2007) A Manual of Acupuncture. Journal of Chinese Medicine

Hempen and Chow (2006) ‘Atlas of acupuncture’ Thieme

Filshie. J., White, A., Cummings, M. (2016) ‘ Medical Acupuncture; A Western Scientific Approach’ 2nd Edition Elsevier: London

Macioca – The practice of Chinese Medicine /The foundations of Chinese Medicine / Diagnosis in Chinese Medicine. Elsevier

Shoulder pain

Lewis, J., Sim, J. and Barlas, P. (2017) ‘ Acupuncture and electro-acupuncture for people diagnosed with subacromial pain syndrome: A multicentre randomized trial’ European Journal of Pain

Molsberger AF, Schneider T, Gotthardt H, Drabik A. German randomized acupuncture trial for chronic shoulder pain (GRASP) – a pragmatic, controlled, patient-blinded, multi- centre trial in an outpatient care environment. Pain 2010; 151: 146–154


Benedetti, F. (2013) ‘Placebo and the New Physiology of the Doctor-Patient Relationship’ Physiological Reviews

Dhond, R.P., Kettner, N. and Napadow, V. (2007) ‘Do the neural correlates of acupuncture and placebo effects differ?’ Pain 128 (1-2)

Finniss et al (2010) ‘Placebo Effects: Biological, Clinical and Ethical Advances’ Lancet

Kaptchuk, T. (2001) ‘The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial:Gold standard or golden calf?’

Kaptchuk, T. et al. (2006) ‘ Sham device v inert pill: randomised controlled trial of two placebo treatments’ British Medical Journal

Kaptchuk, T. et al. (2008) ‘Components of placebo effect: randomised controlled trial in patients with irritable bowel syndrome’ British Medical Journal

Lundeberg, T., Lund, I., Sing, A. and Naslund, J. (2011) Is Placebo Acupuncture What it is intended to be? Evidence – Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Lund, I., & Lundeberg, T (2006) ‘Are minimal, superficial or sham acupuncture procedures acceptable as inert placebo controls?’ Acupuncture in Medicine

Madsen, M.V. et al. (2009) ‘Acupuncture treatment for pain: systematic review of randomised clinical trials with acupuncture, placebo acupuncture, and no acupuncture groups’ British Medical Journal

Petrovic, P. et al., (2002)’Placebo and Opioid Analgesia– Imaging a Shared Neuronal Network’ Science

Wagner, T.D. et al.(2004) ‘Placebo-induced changes in fMRI in the anticipation and experience of pain’ Science

Back Pain

Brinkhaus, B. et al (2005)’Acupuncture in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial’

Cherkin, D et al. (2009) ‘A Randomized Trial Comparing Acupuncture, Simulated Acupuncture, and Usual Care for Chronic Low Back Pain’ JAMA

Clarkson, C. (2017) The NICE Sham-bles

Haake, M. et al. (2007) ‘German Acupuncture Trials (Gerac) For Chronic Low Back Pain Randomized, Multicenter, Blinded, Parallel-Group Trial With 3 Groups’

Liu, L et al (2015) ‘Acupuncture for Low Back Pain: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

Thomas, K.T. et al (2006) ‘Randomised controlled trial of a short course of traditional acupuncture compared with usual care for persistent non-specific low back pain’ British Medical Journal

Witt, C.M et al (2006) ‘Pragmatic Randomized Trial Evaluating the Clinical and Economic Effectiveness of Acupuncture for Chronic Low Back Pain’

Yuan et al. (2008) ‘Effectiveness of acupuncture for Low Back Pain’ SPINE

Pregnancy related Pelvic Girdle Pain

Clarkson, C.E. and Adams, N. (2018) ‘A qualitative exploration of the views and experiences of women with Pregnancy related Pelvic Girdle Pain’ Physiotherapy

Elden, H., Lundgren, I. and Robertson, E. (2014a) ‘The Pelvic ring of pain: Pregnant women’s experiences of severe pelvic girdle pain: An interview study’ Clinical Nursing Studies 2 (2)

Elden, H., Faqevik-Olsen, M., Ostgaard, H.C., Stener-Victorin, E. and Hagberg, H. (2008). ‘Acupuncture as an adjunct to standard treatment for pelvic girdle pain in pregnant women: randomised double blinded controlled trial comparing acupuncture with non-penetrating sham acupuncture.’ British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 115(13) pp1655-68

Elden, H., Ladfors, L., Olsen, M.F., Ostgaard, H.C., & Hagberg, H. (2005) ‘Effects of acupuncture and stabilising exercises as adjunct to standard treatment in pregnant women with pelvic girdle pain: randomised single blind controlled trial’ British Medical Journal, 330(761).

Gutke, A., Betten, C., Degerskar, K., Pousette, S., Olsen, M.F. (2015) ‘Treatments for pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain: a systematic review of physiotherapy modalities’ ACTA Obstetricia et Gynecologica DOI: 10.1111/aogs.12681

Liddle, S.D. and V. (2015) ‘Treatments for preventing and treating low-back and pelvic pain during pregnancy’. The Cochrane collaboration.

Röst, C.C.M et al (2004) ‘Pelvic Pain During Pregnancy: A Descriptive Study of Signs and Symptoms of 870 Patients inPrimary Care’

Stuge, B. et al. (2011) ‘The Pelvic Girdle Questionnaire: A Condition-Specific Instrument for Assessing Activity Limitations and Symptoms in People With Pelvic Girdle Pain’

Wang, S.M., Dizinno, P., Lin, E., Lin, H., Yue, J., Berman, M., Bravemen, F., & Kain, Z. (2009) ‘Auricular Acupuncture as a Treatment for Pregnant Women Suffering from Low Back and Posterior Pelvic Pain: A Pilot Study’, American Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology, 201 (3)

Vleeming, A., Albert, H.B., Östgaard, H.C., Sturesson, B. and Stuge, B. (2008) ‘European guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic girdle pain’ European Spine Journal

Verstraete, Vanderstraeten and Parewick (2013) ‘Pelvic Girdle Pain during or after Pregnancy: a review of recent evidence and a clinical care path proposal’

Wu et al (2004) ‘Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPP), I: Terminology, clinical presentation, and prevalence’

Feasibility and Pilot study guidance

Eldridge et al (2016) ‘Defining Feasibility and Pilot Studies in Preparation for Randomised Controlled Trials: Development of a Conceptual Framework’ PLOSone

Eldridge et al (2016) ‘CONSORT 2010 statement: extension to randomised pilot and feasibility trials’ BMJ

NIHR, (2016) ‘Guide to Feasibility and pilot studies:a guide for NIHR Research Design Services’

Taping and Strapping

Barton et al., (2013) ‘Patellar taping for patellofemoral pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate clinical outcomes and biomechanical mechanisms’

Bennell et al., (2006) ‘Effect of Patellar Taping on Vasti Onset Timing, Knee Kinematics, and Kinetics in Asymptomatic Individuals with a Delayed Onset of Vastus Medialis Oblique

Gilleard et al., (1998) ‘The Effect of Patellar Taping on the Onset of Vastus Medialis Obliquus and Vastus Lateralis Muscle Activity in Persons With Patellofemoral Pain’

Halim-Kertanegara et al. (2017) ‘The effect of ankle taping on functional performance in participantswith functional ankle instability’

Hinman et al., (2002) ‘Efficacy of knee tape in the management of osteoarthritis of the knee: blinded randomised controlled trial’

Jeffriess et al., (2015) ‘Effects of Preventative Ankle Taping on Planned Change-of-Direction and Reactive Agility Performance and Ankle Muscle Activity in Basketballers’

Lan et al., (2010) ‘Immediate Effect and Predictors of Effectiveness of Taping for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome’Abstract

Paris et al., (1995) ‘Ankle Ranges of Motion During Extended Activity Periods While Taped and Braced’

Raymond et al (2012) ‘The effect of ankle taping or bracing on proprioception in functional ankleinstability: A systematic review and meta-analysis’

Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

Cardoso, R. et al ‘Effect of Acupuncture on delayed onset muscle soreness: series of case studies.’

Itoh, K., Ochi, H., and Kitakoji, K. (2008) ‘Effects of tender point acupuncture on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) – a pragmatic trial’

Fleckenstein, J. et al (2016) ‘No Effect of Acupuncture in the Relief of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial’

Sporting Performance

Akimoto, T et al (2003) ‘Acupuncture and Responses of Immunologic and Endocrine Markers during Competition’

Hu¨bscher, M. et al. (2010) ‘Immediate effects of acupuncture on strength performance:a randomized, controlled crossover trial’

Karvelas, B (1996) ‘Acute effects of acupuncture on physiological and psychological responses to cycle ergometry’

Lin, Z. et al. (2009) ‘Effects of Acupuncture Stimulation on Recovery Ability of Male Elite Basketball Athletes’

Pelham, T., Holt, l., and Stalker, R. (2001) ‘Acupuncture in Human Performance’

Usichenko, T et al (2011) ‘Goal-Directed Acupuncture in Sports—Placebo or Doping?’


Millar, Murrell and McInness (2017) ‘Inflammatory mechanisms in tendinopathy – towards translation’

Rio et al (2013) ‘The Pain of Tendinopathy: Physiological or Pathophysiological?’

Nausea and Vomiting

Gan et al. (2014) ‘Consensus Guidelines for the Management of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting’

Lee,A. Chan,S.K. Fan (2015) ‘Stimulation of the wrist acupuncture point PC6 for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting’

Matthews, A. et al. (2014) ‘Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy (Review)’

McKeown, C. et al (2014) Acupuncture and Acupressure for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: A Systematic Review’

Rahman, M.H., Beattie, J. (2008) ‘Post-operative nausea and vomiting’

Hot flushes

Lesi, G. et al (2016) ‘Acupuncture As an Integrative Approach for the Treatment of Hot Flashes in Women With Breast Cancer: A Prospective Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial (AcCliMaT)’

Overactive Bladder

Emmons and Otto (2005) ‘Acupuncture for Overactive Bladder: A Randomized Controlled Trial’

Oliveria et al. (2016) ‘Nonantimuscarinic treatment for overactive bladder: a systematic review’

Forde JC, Jaffe E, Stone BV, Te AE, Espinosa G, Chughtai B. The role of acupuncture in managing overactive bladder; a review of the literature. International Urogynecology Journal. 2016; 27(11):1645-51.


Curran, S. et al (2010) ‘The ACTIV Study: Acupuncture Treatment in Provoked Vestibulodyniajsm’

Schlaeger et al (2015) ‘Acupuncture for the treatment of vulvodynia: A randomized wait-list controlled pilot study’


Acupuncture Training Courses in Sheffield

2020 got off to a flying start here at Acuphys with two back-to-back acupuncture training courses taking place at Read More





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